In c. 3622/140 B.C.E., the Chashmona’im removed all the idols from the Beis Hamikdash. The day is cited as a Yom Tov in Megillas Taanis.
In 5342/1581, the first auto-da-fe in the Americas was carried out by the Inquisition in Lima, Peru.
In 5463/1702, Harav Yehoshua Pollack, the Pnei Yehoshua, trapped under fallen rubble during the great fire in Lvov in which 36 Jews were killed, vowed that he would write a sefer and disseminate Torah if he lived. He was miraculously saved and wrote his famous sefer, Pnei Yehoshua.
In 5702/1941, 1,538 Jews of Poltava, Russia were executed by the Nazis. Hy”d.
5403/1642, Harav Meir Katz, zt”l, the father of the Shach
5600/1839, Harav Shimshon of Ozhiran, zt”l
5647/1886, Harav Avraham Yehoshua Heschel of Skver, zt”l
Harav Meshulam Yissaschar Ashkenazi, zt”l, the Stanislaver Rebbe of London
Harav Meshulam Yissaschar Ashkenazi was born on 4 Tammuz, 5662/1902, to Harav Zvi Hirsch, Hy”d, the Stanislaver Rebbe in Vienna.
The father, Harav Zvi Hirsch, was a son of Harav Asher Anshel of Alesk, son-in-law of Harav Chanoch Henich, the Lev Same’ach of Alesk. Harav Chanoch Henich was a son of Harav Yoel Ashkenazi, Rav in Zlotchov, who in turn was the son of Harav Dovid Moshe Ashkenazi, the Toltchover Rav and mechaber of Be’er Sheva.
Harav Meshulam Yissaschar’s mother, Rebbetzin Gittel, was the daughter of Harav Yitzchak Yehoshua Klieger, Rav of Graidung (near Lvov). This grandfather gave Harav Meshulam Yissaschar semichah in 5677/1917, when he was just 15 years old.
Harav Meshulam Yissaschar also learned under Harav Ben-Zion Katz, Rav of Dorostov, and Harav Chaim Yitzchak Yerucham of Altstadt.
He was close to the Rebbes Harav Yissachar Dov of Belz, who was his relative, and Harav Yisrael of Tchortkov, who resided at that time (after World War I) in Vienna.
Harav Meshulam Yissaschar took part in the Knessiah Gedolah in Vienna, Elul 5683/1923. He was active in Chevras Tiferes Bachurim in Vienna, convincing many bachurim to go to yeshivah.
He married Rebbetzin Esther, daughter of Harav Klonimus Kalman Ules, the Sambur Rebbe.
When the Nazis annexed Austria in 5698/1938, Reb Meshulam Yissaschar fled from Vienna to Stanislav and thus was saved from near-certain death. The plan was to bring the whole family to Stanislav, but his parents, brother Harav Asher, and two sisters were all killed al kiddush Hashem. Hy”d.
Reb Meshulam Yissaschar ended up in London, where he cared for the many refugees and helped others escape the Nazi inferno.
His reputation as a scion of the dynasties of Alesk and Stanislav and an oved Hashem attracted large numbers of Chassidim to his beis medrash in London. He was known for his ahavas Yisrael and the yeshuos he was able to effect. London’s Torah leaders, including Harav Yechezkel Abramsky and the Shotzer Rebbe, honored him.
Reb Meshulam Yissaschar was zocheh to arichus yamim. His mind was clear to his last day, and there was no change in his seder hayom or avodas Hashem.
He was niftar on Motzoei Shabbos Parashas Toldos, 3 Kislev 5755/1994, at the age of 92, and was buried in London.
In accordance with his tzavaah, his oldest son, Harav Uri, was named Stanislaver Rebbe. Another son is Harav Zvi Hirsch, and his sons-in-law are Harav Moshe Sofer, son of the Erlauer Rav; Harav Yitzchak Babad, son of Harav Aleksander, Rav in Stropkov; and Harav Naftali Horowitz, grandson of Harav Shlomo Zalman Friedman of Rachov, zt”l, Rav of Lugano.
Zechuso yagen aleinu.
In 1632, King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden was killed in battle.
In 1860, former Illinois congressman Abraham Lincoln defeated three other candidates for the presidency: John Breckinridge, John Bell and Stephen Douglas.
In 1861, Confederate President Jefferson Davis was elected to a six-year term of office.
In 1888, Republican Benjamin Harrison won the presidential election, defeating Democratic incumbent Grover Cleveland with an electoral vote count of 233–168, even though Cleveland led in the popular vote.
In 1928, in a first, the results of Republican Herbert Hoover’s election victory over Democrat Alfred E. Smith were flashed onto an electric wraparound sign on the New York Times building.
In 1934, Nebraska voters approved dissolving their two-chamber legislature in favor of a nonpartisan, single (or “unicameral”) legislative body, which was implemented in 1937.
In 1956, President Dwight D. Eisenhower won re-election, defeating Democrat Adlai E. Stevenson.
In 1962, Democrat Edward M. Kennedy was elected Senator from Massachusetts.
In 1977, 39 people were killed when the Kelly Barnes Dam burst, sending a wall of water through Toccoa Falls College in Georgia.