This Day in History – 27 Tammuz/July 5

27 Tammuz

In 4965/1205, Pope Innocent III promulgated a church doctrine that the Jews were doomed to perpetual servitude. (This was not officially removed from church doctrine until 1963.)

In 5082/1322, France expelled all Jews for the third time.

In 5498/1738, a Jew and a Russian naval officer who had converted to Judaism (having been influenced and/or taught by that Jew), were both burned at the stake in St. Petersburg. Hy”d.

Yahrtzeiten

2310/1451 B.C.E., according to some opinions, Yosef Hatzaddik, zt”l. He was also born on this date in 2200/1561 B.C.E. According to most opinions, he was born and was niftar on 2 Tammuz.

5608/1848, Harav Nachum Tarbitch, zt”l, mechaber of Kovetz al HaRambam

5666/1906, Harav Yaakov Shaul Elisher of Yerushalayim, zt”l, mechaber of Yisa Ish, Yisa Brachah and other sefarim

5723/1963, Harav Yaakov Adas, zt”l

5739/1979, Harav Shmuel Rozovski, zt”l, Rosh Yeshivas Ponovezh

5767/2007, Harav Mordechai Twersky, the Skverer Rebbe of Flatbush, zt”l


 

5593/1833

Harav Yitzchak Charif of Sambur, zt”l, mechaber of Pnei Yitzchak

Harav Yitzchak Charif was the son of Harav Moshe of Dregatchin, the mechaber of Maggid Mishneh on the Mishnas Chassidim.

Harav Yitzchak was known as a Gadol in both nigleh and nistar. Many of the generation’s tzaddikim held him in the highest esteem.

When Harav Yitzchak was appointed Rav of Sambur, the non-Jewish ruler of the region came to receive his blessing.

Harav Yitzchak was well respected and admired by the members of the kehillah for his fatherly love and dedication to all their needs. Despite his lofty level of Torah and kedushah, Reb Yitzchak was involved in all that was happening in the city, and thus drew the people close to the Torah.

Many kehillos wanted to have Harav Yitzchak as their Rav. Following the petirah of Harav Meir Berabi, the kehillah of Pressburg sought to appoint Harav Yitzchak as their Rav. So as not to delay his decision, they sent a ksav rabbanus right away to the home of the Rosh Hakahal of Sambur. Upon receiving the letter, the Rosh Hakahal decided not to show it to Harav Yitzchak, fearing that he would leave the city. When the kehillah of Pressburg didn’t receive any response from Harav Yitzchak, they sent another letter — again to the Rosh Hakahal — and again he didn’t pass it on.

When they realized that Harav Yitzchak was not responding, the Pressburg kehillah sent a letter to Harav Meshulam Igra, and in their letter they related the whole issue, that they sent Reb Yitzchak two letters, and since he ignored them, they were now offering Harav Igra the Rabbanus.

Harav Meshulam Igra was tempted to accept the prestigious Rabbanus of Pressburg, but upon hearing that Reb Yitzchak had declined, he wanted to discuss the matter with him, and hear his opinion. He traveled to Sambur to meet with Harav Yitzchak. Upon his arrival in Sambur, Harav Yitzchak arranged for a lavish seudah to be held in honor of the guest, with the leaders of the kehillah attending as well. During the seudah, Harav Meshulam asked Harav Yitzchak why he didn’t accept the rabbanus of Pressburg. Harav Yitzchak looked up in amazement and said that he had never received such an offer.

The Rosh Hakahal stood up and confessed that he was the one who had received — and hidden — the letters, explaining that he did not want Harav Yitzchak to leave the city.

Reb Yitzchak ruled that the Rabbanus rightfully belonged to Harav Meshulam Igra, for he was the one to receive the ksav rabbanus.

Harav Yitzchak wrote She’eilos U’teshuvos Pnei Yitzchak and Ha’elef Lecha Shlomo on Shas.

He was niftar on 27 Tammuz 5593/1833.

Zecher tzaddik livrachah.


 

July 5

In 1687, Isaac Newton first published his Principia Mathematica, a three-volume work setting out his mathematical principles of natural philosophy.

In 1811, Venezuela became the first South American country to declare independence from Spain.

In 1865, William Booth founded the Salvation Army in London.

In 1935, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the National Labor Relations Act.

In 1943, the Battle of Kursk began during World War II as German forces attacked a Soviet salient (or bulge) around the Russian city of Kursk; in the weeks that followed, the Soviets were able to repeatedly repel the Germans, who eventually withdrew in defeat.

In 1948, Britain’s National Health Service Act went into effect, providing government-financed medical and dental care.

In 1984, the Supreme Court weakened the 70-year-old “exclusionary rule,” deciding that evidence seized in good faith with defective court warrants could be used against defendants in criminal trials.

Five years ago: Gas station owner Kent Couch flew a lawn chair rigged with helium-filled balloons more than 200 miles across the Oregon desert, landing in a field in Cambridge, Idaho.

One year ago: Trucks carrying NATO supplies rolled into Afghanistan for the first time in more than seven months, ending a painful chapter in U.S.-Pakistan relations that saw the border closed until Washington apologized for an airstrike that killed 24 Pakistani soldiers.

Former Argentine dictator Jorge Rafael Videla was convicted and sentenced to 50 years for a systematic program to steal babies from prisoners who were kidnapped, tortured and killed during the military junta’s so-called “dirty war” on leftist dissidents.