Since then, I have learned a great deal about the diverse types of whole-grain flours. I’ve come to know the varieties that successfully produce pancakes, muffins and cookies and those better for flatbreads and pizza crust. I’ve learned to take it slow and mix unfamiliar flours with familiar selections until my family’s palate adjusts.
To save you some bad batches of baked goods, here is a cheat sheet for baking with healthful flours.
Why choose flours other than refined white? Refined white flour, called “the white devil” by many in the nutrition community, is made by removing the fiber, wheat germ and B vitamins from a wheat kernel. In fact, it has been shown that 93 percent of the fiber, 25 percent of the original protein content and almost 20 other essential nutrients are lost. The starchy (gluten) part of the kernel remains, is finely ground, and then bleached with chemicals. Sometimes the resulting refined flour is enriched with synthetic vitamins and minerals to make it “healthful” again, although the jury is out on whether our bodies absorb and use those synthetic vitamins as effectively. The body immediately turns this processed final product into glucose, which raises insulin levels and can contribute to sugar highs, energy lows, weight gain and cravings.
Most whole grains and many nuts and beans can be ground into flour, but they are not all interchangeable. Each has its own character, ranging from silky to gritty, and they yield different outcomes when baked. Wheat is the most versatile and popular because of its gluten content, which allows recipes to bind easily without crumbling.
When experimenting with whole-grain and bean flours, do so in stages. If a recipe calls for a cup of white flour, try a quarter-cup of a whole-grain flour and three-quarters cup white. Next time, increase the amount of whole-grain flour by a bit, ensuring it still suits your palate. There are countless cookbooks chock-full of recipes using all kinds of flours. Pick one up for tested recipes that will keep you from tossing batches of rock-hard muffins, crumbling cookies and bitter-tasting breads.
The method of production has an effect on the flour’s performance, flavor and nutrition. Organic flour from a stone-ground mill is ideal. Bob’s Red Mill and Arrowhead Mills are two high-quality brands that can be found in grocery stores nationwide.
Store in an airtight container, ideally in the refrigerator. Processed white flour has a long shelf life, but whole-grain flours go rancid more quickly. Freshly ground, whole-grain flour has a shelf life of one to two months in a pantry and four in the fridge. Store-bought flour will have a use-by date on it. A rancid flour will begin to smell and give an unsavory taste. Rancid flours also have lower nutrient content.
Bob’s Red Mill, a producer of many high-quality whole grains and whole-grain flours, suggests using 2½ teaspoons of baking powder per cup of a wheat-free/gluten-free flour. And when baking without wheat or gluten, add xanthan gum or guar gum (both binders that keep batter from separating) to improve the texture of the baked goods. My favorite brands of gluten-free flour are Deya’s Gluten Free Flour, Bob’s Red Mill Gluten-Free Flour and Pamela’s Gluten-Free Bread Mix, both of which can be found at grocery stores nationwide.
• not a whole grain but an ideal flour substitute for pancakes, muffins, cookies
• adds sweetness
• creates a cakelike consistency if used in a large quantity
• contains gluten
• use to thicken and sweeten gravies and sauces
• combine with other flours like whole-wheat or spelt for breads
• adds sweetness
• lightly toast before using for ideal flavor
• use for pie crust, breads, crackers, pizza crust (to make crispy)
• substitute in small amounts
• in breads, must be combined with a sticky flour like oat or with xanthan gum or guar gum
• grainy texture
• purchase in small quantities as high oil content causes rapid rancidity.
• gluten-free and wheat-free (despite the name)
• use in pancakes, waffles and pastas
• do not use in sauces — it will turn to glue
• adds an earthy flavor to baked goods
Cornmeal, yellow & blue:
• use in pancakes, muffins, corn bread and tortillas
• use to thicken sauces
• the blue variety has a higher nutrition content and turns a lavender color when cooked
• not a whole grain but an ideal flour substitute for crepes, flat bread, hummus and falafel
• high in protein and calcium
• works well in pizza crust, flatbreads and pasta
• does not rise well, so do not substitute 100 percent
• adds a lovely amber color
• provides structure to flat breads, bread, pizza and muffins
• provides protein
• easy to digest
• sweet, buttery, cornmeal-like flavor
• low-gluten or gluten-free depending upon the factory in which it is processed
• add to cookies, pie crust and muffins
• use in soups and sauces for a dairy-free, milk-like base
• sweet taste
• contains antioxidants that help baked goods retain freshness
• use in bread
• try 50 percent in cake recipes
• replace 100 percent in pancakes, crepes, muffins, crackers and cookies
• contains twice the protein of corn or rice
• dry-roast to enhance its flavor
• contains gluten
• when using as a substitute, reduce the liquid by 25 percent
• do not over-knead because its high gluten content will make it dense
• use to thicken stews, soups and sauces
• makes breads, pancakes and waffles
• sweet, malty flavor
• an all-purpose flour
• more nutritious than white, so an ideal 100 percent substitute
• less gluten than whole-wheat flour
• try a 50/50 mix with unbleached white flour
• absorbs less water than white, so it tends to crumble more easily
White flour substitutions:
1 cup white flour equals:
Barley flour 1 1/3 cup
Buckwheat flour 7/8 cup
Cornmeal ¾ cup
Garbanzo (chickpea) flour ¾ cup
Kamut flour 7/8 cup
Millet flour 1 cup
Nut flours (almond, hazelnut) ½ cup
Oat flour 1 1/3 cup
Quinoa flour 1 cup
Rice flour (white/brown) 7/8 cup
Teff flour 7/8 cup
Seidenberg is co-founder of Nourish Schools, a Washington, D.C.-based nutrition education company.