5474/1713, Harav Yoel Baal Shem Heilprin, zt”l
5508/1747, Harav Tzvi Hirsch Halberstadt, the Kos Hayeshuos, zt”l
5608/1847, Harav Yitzchak Aryeh, the Baal Shem of Michelstadt, zt”l
5620/1859, Harav Nechemiah of Bochov, zt”l
5674/1913, Harav Yitzchak Maltzen, zt”l, mechaber of Shvisas Hashabbos
5581/1820, Harav Avraham Danzig, zt”l, Mechaber of Chayei Adam and Chachmas Adam
Harav Avraham Danzig was born in 5508 in the city of Danzig. His father was Harav Yechiel Michel. He learned under Harav Yechezkel Landau, the Noda BiYehudah; and under Harav Yosef Lieberman, Rosh Yeshivah in Prague. At age 18, he received semichah from Harav Lieberman.
After Rav Avraham married, he lived in Vilna. He did not want to support himself by rabbanus, so he tried his hand at business — but used most of the day for learning and davening.
After his business failed, he was forced to take upon himself the rabbanus of Vilna. In his introduction to Chachmas Adam, Rav Avraham, in his great humility, excuses himself for having to be supported by the community, adding that he relied on the fact that the Torah lets an elderly talmid chacham be supported by the public.
Chayei Adam, his major halachic work, was first published in Vilna anonymously. His most famous sefarim, Chayei Adam (a “kitzur” on Orach Chaim) and Chachmas Adam (a “kitzur” on Yoreh Deah), became very popular. Rav Avraham was a close associate of the Vilna Gaon.
In 5564/1804, Rav Avraham was miraculously saved from death when an explosion in his courtyard killed 31 others. He then promised to go live in Yerushalayim after all his children were married.
The Chayei Adam wrote a sefer, Matzeivas Moshe, on hilchos aveilus in memory of his son, Moshe, who was niftar at a young age. At his levayah, a text was given out in which he asked mechilah from all in case he had mistakenly wronged them.
The Tefillah Zakah that many are accustomed to say before Kol Nidrei was written by the Chayei Adam.
Zechuso yagen aleinu.
In 1683, 13 families from Germany arrived in Philadelphia to establish Germantown, one of America’s oldest settlements.
In 1939, in a speech to the Reichstag, German Chancellor Adolf Hitler spoke of his plans to reorder the ethnic layout of Europe — a plan which would entail settling the “Jewish problem.”