This Day in History – 3 Elul/September 3

3 Elul

In 4949/1189, the day that King Richard was crowned, Christian mobs converged on the Jews. Richard had forbidden Jews to make an appearance at his coronation, but some Jewish leaders showed up to present gifts to the new king. Richard’s courtiers flogged them, then flung the Jews out of court.

The people of London joined in the persecution of the Jews, and a massacre began. Many Jews were beaten to death, Hy”d. Others were robbed and then burned alive. At least one was forcibly baptized. Some sought sanctuary in the Tower of London, and others managed to escape half-dead.


5518/1758, Harav Moshe Charif of Pressburg, zt”l

5628/1868, Harav Avraham Tzvi Eisenstadt, zt”l, mechaber of Pischei Teshuvah

5640/1880, Harav Yitzchak Tzadika of Jerba, Tunisia, zt”l

5695/1935, Harav Avraham Yitzchak Hakohen Kook, zt”l, the first Ashkenazic Chief Rabbi of Eretz Israel

5703/1943, Harav Yitzchak Yeshaya, Rebbe of Tchechov, Hy”d, son of Harav Chaim of Sanz, zy”a

5703/1943, Harav Moshe, Rebbe of Boyan-Cracow, Hy”d

5708/1948, Harav Shraga Feivel Mendelowitz, zt”l, Menahel of Yeshiva Torah Vodaath


Harav Yissachar Dov Ber Leifer of Nadvorna, Zy”a

Harav Yissachar Dov Ber Leifer was the son of Harav Yitzchak of Kalusch, zy”a, a scion of the Premishlan dynasty.

In his youth Rav Bertche, as he was fondly called, learned together with his uncle Harav Meir of Premishlan, zy”a, under his illustrious grandfather, Harav Aharon Leib of Premishlan, zy”a. Rav Meir said of his young nephew, “If I had the fire of Rav Bertche I would devour the entire world.”

Rav Bertche married the daughter of Harav Avraham Leib Shochet.

He traveled to the court of Harav Yitzchak of Radvill, zy”a, the son of Harav Yechiel Michel of Zlotchov, zy”a. Following the petirah of Rav Yitzchak, Rav Bertche was appointed Rebbe, holding court in Nadvorna.

He was known for his enthusiastic tefillos.

In the year of his passing, cholera broke out in the Jewish community, causing many deaths. Rav Bertche took upon himself to be the kapparah of Klal Yisrael. He was niftar on 3 Elul 5608/1848, and with his petirah the epidemic stopped.

His sons were Harav Aharon Leib of Nadvorna; Harav Mordechai of Nadvorna-Bursztyn; Harav Yosef of Bursha; and Harav Yisrael.

His sons-in-law were Harav Moshe of Kalusch; Harav Yitzchak Dov of Nadvorna; and Harav Feivish, who lived in Zhabrizh, zechusam yagen aleinu.

Some of the divrei Torah of Rav Bertche were published as a section of his son’s sefer, Maamar Mordechai.

Zechuso yagen aleinu.

Sept. 3

The United States delegation at the Treaty of Paris included John Jay, John Adams, Benjamin Franklin, Henry Laurens, and William Temple Franklin. Here they are depicted by Benjamin West in his “American Commissioners of the Preliminary Peace Agreement with Great Britain.” The British delegation refused to pose, and the painting was never completed.
(Benjamin West)

In 1783, representatives of the United States and Britain signed the Treaty of Paris, which officially ended the Revolutionary War.

In 1939, Britain, France, Australia and New Zealand declared war on Germany, two days after the Nazi invasion of Poland.

In 1976, America’s Viking 2 lander touched down on Mars to take the first close-up, color photographs of the planet’s surface.

In 1994, China and Russia proclaimed an end to any lingering hostilities, pledging they would no longer target nuclear missiles or use force against each other.

In 1995, the online auction site eBay was founded in San Jose, California, by Pierre Omidyar under the name “AuctionWeb.”

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