In 5115/1335, 1,200 Jews of Toledo, Spain, were massacred during a Christian and Moslem mob attack on the Jewish section.
5545/1785, Harav Shaul Halevi, zt”l, Rav of Hag and mechaber of Binyan Shaul
5592/1832, Harav Yaakov Lorberbaum, zt”l, mechaber of Chavas Daas, Nesivos Hamishpat, and other sefarim
5647/1887, Harav Avraham Yosef Asch, zt”l, Rav and founder of Beis Medrash Hagadol on the Lower East Side
5693/1933, Harav Naftali Yosef Freund, zt”l, Rav of Ruzhan, Poland, and mechaber of She’eilos u’Teshuvos Pnei Lev.
5702/1942, Harav Yosef Patzanovsky of Pabianitz, zt”l, mechaber of Pardes Yosef
5717/1957, Harav Chaim Chori, zt”l, Rav of Ghaba, Tunis, and mechaber of Matza Chaim
Harav Chaim Hager of Kossov, Zy”a, the Toras Chaim
Harav Chaim Hager was the son of Harav Menachem Mendel of Kossov, zy”a, the forebear of the Vizhnitz dynasty. He was born about 5555/1795.
In his early years he learned under his father.
He married the daughter of Harav Yehudah Meir Shapira of Shpitovka, zy”a, the son of Harav Pinchas of Koritz, zy”a. After his wedding, he settled in Shpitovka. He hid his lofty ways in avodas Hashem, acting as a simple person.
Rav Chaim traveled to the courts of many of the leading Rebbes of the generation, among them the Chozeh of Lublin, the Ohev Yisrael of Apta and the Shpole Zeide, zechusam yagein aleinu.
From Shpitovka Rav Chaim returned to Kossov, where he played an active role in his father’s court.
After his father’s petirah in 5586/1826, Rav Chaim was appointed Rebbe in Kossov, while his brother Harav Dovid, zy”a, was appointed Rebbe in Zablotov.
Rav Chaim was known for his greatness in Torah, both in nigleh and in nistar. He was also renowned for his outstanding hasmadah; it is related that he often learned straight through the night.
For the yahrtzeit of his parents, he would make an annual siyum on the Rif and the Rambam.
Like his father, Rav Chaim was decisive in his leadership of his flock and of the entire region. He instructed his Chassidim to fulfill the mitzvah of ahavas Yisrael.
In his elder years he wanted to go up to Eretz Yisrael, but his Chassidim pleaded that he stay with them. Rav Chaim was niftar on 25 Iyar 5614/1854.
He was succeeded by his sons: Harav Yaakov Shimshon, zy”a, was appointed Rebbe in Kossov, Harav Yosef Alter, zy”a, Rebbe in Radowitz, and Harav Menachem Mendel, zy”a, Rebbe in Vizhnitz.
His sons-in-law were Harav Pinchas Yosef Shapira of Daltin; Harav Yisrael, the grandson of Harav Yechiel Michel, the Maggid of Zlotchov; and Harav Yehoshua Elazar Chodorov of Kolomaya, zechusam yagen aleinu.
The divrei Torah of Reb Chaim were published under the name Toras Chaim.
Zechuso yagen aleinu.
In 1848, W.G. Young patented the ice cream freezer.
In 1854, the U.S. territories of Nebraska and Kansas were established.
In 1868, Memorial Day was observed widely for the first time in the U.S.
In 1922, the Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C., was dedicated in a ceremony attended by President Warren G. Harding, Chief Justice William Howard Taft and Robert Todd Lincoln.
In 2008, diplomats from 111 nations meeting in Dublin, Ireland, formally adopted a landmark treaty banning cluster bombs. The United States and other leading cluster-bomb makers boycotted the talks.