This Day In History 19 Elul/September 22

Shaar blatt of Knesses Hagedolah.
Shaar blatt of Knesses Hagedolah.

In 4949/1189, Rabbeinu Yaakov of Orleans, one of the Baalei Tosafos and a disciple of Rabbeinu Tam, was killed, along with many other Jews in London, during anti-Semitic riots inspired by King Richard’s coronation. Hy”d.

In 5612/1852, anti-Jewish riots erupted in Stockholm, Sweden.


Yahrtzeiten

5355/1595, Harav Shmuel Yaffe, zt”l, mechaber of Yefeh Mareh

5426/1666, Harav Berachyah Shapiro of Cracow, zt”l, mechaber of Zera Berach

5567/1807, Harav Dov, zt”l, a brother of the Vilna Gaon

5588/1828, Harav Avraham, zt”l, Rav of Lublin

5634/1874, Harav Meshulam Shraga Feivish Heilprin, the Sfas Emes of Brezhan, zt”l

5645/1885, Harav Zev Nachum Borenstein, the Agudas Ezov, zt”l, Rav of Biala


5433/1673, Harav Chaim Benveniste, zt”l, Mechaber of Knesses Hagedolah

Harav Chaim Benveniste was born in Constantinople in 5363/1603. His father was Rav Yisrael.

Rav Chaim learned under his grandfather, Harav Moshe Benveniste, one of the leading talmidei chachamim of Constantinople. Later, he learned under Harav Yosef of Trani, Harav Yosef Samigah and Harav Tzemach Narboni.

In 5384/1624, though he was still young (21), Rav Chaim was appointed to the Council of Rabbanim of Constantinople. That same year he wrote his first sefer, Dina D’chayei, on Sefer Mitzvos Hagadol.

In 5403/1643, he became Rav of Tita, a town near Izmir.

In 5418/1658, he settled in Izmir, whose Rav at the time was Harav Yosef Iskappeh. From 5421/1661 and on, when Rav Yosef was frail, Rav Chaim was the unofficial Rav; after Rav Yosef’s petirah, the appointment became official.

Rav Chaim is best known for his widely cited Knesses Hagedolah and Shiyarei Knesses Hagedolah, commentaries to the Tur and Shulchan Aruch. The Chida recommended that these sefarim be consulted prior to rendering any halachic decision.

Besides these famous works, Rav Chaim also wrote She’eilos U’teshuvos Bai Chayei.

Rav Chaim was niftar on 19 Elul 5433/1673 at the age of 70. [According to the Chida, he was 74 at his petirah.]

Zecher tzaddik livrachah.

A printed copy of Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation. The document, believed to be one of two or three similar copies in existence, was presented to the state of Illinois by an anonymous donor. A number of copies were printed after the issuance of the original proclamation on Jan. 1, 1863 for sale to benefit wounded soldiers. (AP Photo)
A printed copy of Abraham Lincoln’s Emancipation Proclamation. The document, believed to be one of two or three similar copies in existence, was presented to the state of Illinois by an anonymous donor. A number of copies were printed after the issuance of the original proclamation on Jan. 1, 1863 for sale to benefit wounded soldiers. (AP Photo)

Sept. 22

In 1792, the first French Republic was proclaimed.

In 1862, President Abraham Lincoln issued the preliminary Emancipation Proclamation, declaring that all slaves in rebel states should be free as of Jan. 1, 1863.

In 1949, the Soviet Union exploded its first atomic bomb.

In 1950, Omar N. Bradley was promoted to the rank of five-star general, joining an elite group that included Dwight D. Eisenhower, Douglas MacArthur, George C. Marshall and Henry H. “Hap” Arnold.