In 5029/1269, Louis IX, king of France, decreed that all Jews must wear the distinctive yellow badge, known as “the badge of shame.”
In 5298/1538, the community of Candia (Crete), Greece, established a Purim.
5548/1788, Harav Yehudah Halevi Edel, zt”l, mechaber of Afikei Yehudah
5608/1848, Harav Avraham ben Harav Yehudah Leib, zt”l, mechaber of Maskil L’eisan, Be’er Avraham and Nachal Eisan
5615/1855, Harav Moshe Dovid Ashkenazi, zt”l, Rav of Toltshova-Tzfas
5634/1874, Harav Yaakov Aryeh Gutterman of Radzimin, zt”l
Harav Yaakov Aryeh was born in Cracow, in 5552/1792. His parents were Harav Shlomo and Rebbetzin Binah Gutterman.
He learned in his youth under the Rav of Vorka, Harav Shmuel, a talmid of Harav Akiva Eiger and mechaber of Toras Shmuel.
Reb Yaakov Aryeh was known as one of the most eminent Chassidim in Kozhnitz, and his closeness to the Maggid was due to the influence of his Rebbe, Harav Shmuel.
He was also a Chassid of the Chozeh, which brought Reb Yaakov Aryeh close to the Yehudi Hakadosh of Peshis’cha as well. After the petirah of the Yehudi Hakadosh, Reb Yaakov Aryeh became a Chassid of the Rebbe Reb Bunim of Peshis’cha. The Rebbe Reb Bunim honored Reb Yaakov Aryeh, even giving him kvitlach that he daven on his behalf.
After the petirah of the Rebbe Reb Bunim, Reb Yaakov Aryeh refused to become a Rebbe, but instead became a Chassid of Harav Yitzchak of Vorka. It was only after the petirah of Reb Yitzchak of Vorka in 5608/1848 that Reb Yaakov Aryeh took up the mantle of leadership.
His fame soon spread throughout Poland as a baal mofes. He attracted thousands of Chassidim and leading tzaddikim.
His aversion to materialism was such that he didn’t know the difference between the various denominations of Polish coins, only knowing that giving “these things” to the poor would “make them happy.” Similarly, his home was always open to the downtrodden and broken-hearted, whom he would amply supply with all their immediate needs.
Reb Yaakov Aryeh was niftar on 18 Tammuz 5634/1874. He was laid to rest in Warsaw’s beis olam, and a distinctive ohel was erected over his kever.
His divrei Torah were written in Bikurei Aviv, on the Torah, and Divrei Aviv, on Medrash for sefer Bereishis. The name Aviv is the roshei teivos of his name, Yaakov Aryeh ben Binah.
Zechuso yagen aleinu.
In 1862, during the Civil War, President Abraham Lincoln signed a bill authorizing the Army Medal of Honor.
In 1909, the House of Representatives joined the Senate in passing the 16th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, allowing for a federal income tax, and submitted it to the states. (It was declared ratified in February 1913.)
In 1957, President Dwight D. Eisenhower was flown by helicopter from the White House to a secret mountaintop location as part of a drill involving a mock nuclear attack on Washington.
In 1994, President Bill Clinton, visiting Germany, went to the eastern sector of Berlin, the first U.S. president to do so since Harry Truman.