A federal judge rejected President Donald Trump’s claim to be immune from all criminal investigations Monday and dismissed his lawsuit challenging a state grand jury subpoena for eight years of his tax returns sought by Manhattan’s district attorney.
District Judge Victor Marrero said in his ruling that he could not grant such a “categorical and limitless assertion of presidential immunity.”
Trump’s lawyers immediately appealed to the 2nd Circuit Court of Appeals, also based in Manhattan, meaning the returns are unlikely to be turned over immediately.
Manhattan District Attorney Cyrus R. Vance Jr., a Democrat, asked Trump’s accounting firm to turn over his business and personal tax returns as part of an investigation into the Trump Organization.
Trump’s lawyers have said the investigation is politically motivated and the request for his tax records should be stopped because he is immune from any criminal probe as long as he is president.
In striking down Trump’s attempt to block the subpoena, Marrero called Trump’s claim of a broad immunity “extraordinary” and “an overreach of executive power.”
“As the court reads it, presidential immunity would stretch to cover every phase of criminal proceedings, including investigations, grand jury proceedings and subpoenas, indictment, prosecution, arrest, trial, conviction, and incarceration,” Marrero wrote. “That constitutional protection presumably would encompass any conduct, at any time, in any forum, whether federal or state, and whether the President acted alone or in concert with other individuals.”
The judge said he couldn’t accept that legal view, “especially in the light of the fundamental concerns over excessive arrogation of power that animated the Constitution’s delicate structure and its calibrated balance of authority among the three branches of the national government, as well as between the federal and state authorities.”
Trump’s lawyers and the district attorney’s office did not immediately comment in response to the ruling.
Justice Department lawyers in Washington, who had urged Marrero to delay deciding the issue, declined to comment.
Vance began his probe after federal prosecutors in Manhattan completed their investigation into payments that Trump’s former personal lawyer, Michael Cohen, arranged to be paid to people to keep them silent during the presidential race. The Trump Organization later reimbursed Cohen.
Cohen is serving a three-year prison sentence for crimes that included campaign finance violations.
Trump was never charged, though prosecutors said publicly that he was aware of and directed the illegal payments. Justice Department policy has long been that sitting presidents cannot be charged criminally.
Grand jury proceedings and records in New York are secret. If Vance gains access to Trump’s returns through a grand jury investigation, that doesn’t mean that their contents would be disclosed publicly.
It is unclear what Trump’s returns might have to do with the criminal investigation.