In 3448, 313 B.C.E, in the presence of Alexander Mokdon (Alexander of Macedonia), Geviha ben Pesisa, the Jewish delegate, won the debate against the Yishmaelites, Egyptians, and Canaanites in their claim to Eretz Yisrael, as cited in Megillas Taanis.
In 3875/115, the Tanna’im Rabi Shimon ben Gamliel, Rabi Yishmael ben Elisha Kohen Gadol and Rabi Chanina Sgan Hakohanim of the Asarah Harugei Malchus were killed by the Romans. A taanis tzaddikim was decreed to mark this tragic event, as mentioned in Megillas Taanis and Shulchan Aruch Orach Chaim 580.
In 4981/1221, the Jews of Erfurt, Germany, were massacred al kiddush Hashem.
5581/1821, Harav Shmuel of Brod, zt”l, son of the Pnei Yehoshua
5636/1876, Harav Dov Berish Landau of Biala, zt”l
5704/1944, Harav Naftali Tzvi Shmerler, zt”l, mechaber of Imrei Naftali
5732/1972, Harav Moshe Tzvi Twersky, zt”l, the Tolna Rebbe of Philadelphia
5753/1993, Harav Reuven Fein, zt”l, Rosh Yeshivas Torah Vodaath and mechaber of Bein Hamishpesayim
5761/2001, Harav Baruch Shimon Schneerson, zt”l, Rosh Yeshivas Tchebin and mechaber of Birchas Shimon
5646/1886, Harav Chaim Sofer, zt”l, Rav of Budapest and mechaber of She’eilos U’teshuvos Machaneh Chaim
Harav Chaim Sofer was the son of Harav Mordechai Efraim Fishel of Pressburg. He was born in Pressburg in 5576/1816. Reb Chaim’s brothers were also noted Gedolim.
He learned in the yeshivah of Harav Binyamin Wolf Lev, the Shaarei Torah, and later in the esteemed yeshivah of the Chasam Sofer.
Reb Chaim was known as an outstanding gaon, especially in the field of halachah. Many halachic she’eilos were addressed to him from many Gedolei Yisrael. These formed the basis for his 10-volume work, She’eilos U’teshuvos Machaneh Chaim.
Reb Chaim served as Rav in Gyömöre, Sajószentpéter, and Munkacs. He was later appointed Rav in Budapest.
Among his talmidim were his brother, Harav Eliezer Zussman Sofer, Rav of Paksch; and Harav Moshe Sofer, Rav of Tisaforder.
Reb Chaim wrote a number of sefarim, including the aforementioned She’eilos U’teshuvos Machaneh Chaim, Kol Sofer on the Mishnayos, Shaarei Chaim on the Torah and Tehillim, Peles Chaim and other works.
Reb Chaim was niftar on 25 Sivan 5646/1886, at the age of 70.
His sons were Harav Yosef Tzvi, Rav of Shamshan; Harav Yaakov Shalom, Rav of Budapest; and Harav Moshe Dovid, Rav of Sasregen.
Zecher tzaddik livrachah.
In 1865, Union troops arrived in Galveston, Texas, with news that the Civil War was over, and that all remaining slaves in Texas were free — an event celebrated to this day as “Juneteenth.”
In 1912, the United States government established the eight-hour workday.
In 1917, during World War I, King George V ordered the British royal family to dispense with German titles and surnames; the family took the name “Windsor.”
In 1944, during World War II, the two-day Battle of the Philippine Sea began, resulting in a decisive victory for the Americans over the Japanese.